ISA stands for individual savings account. Unlike a standard savings account with your bank, an ISA allows you to hold cash or investments without having to pay tax on interest, dividends, or gains. Some ISAs have specialist features, such as bonuses for buying a home, or being designed for saving for children. There are limits on how much you can put away each year, and you have the option of variable or fixed interest rates.
There is a limit to how much money you can place into ISAs each tax year. You can invest up to this limit in any combination of ISA types (e.g. cash, stocks & shares, innovative finance). Remember the allowance renews every tax year, so if April is approaching and you have some spare cash, always see if you have some ISA allowance to use up.
The ISA limit changes periodically and is currently £20,000.
There are several different types of ISAs, each one designed for a particular kind of saving or investing. Some ISAs come with special advantages and/or certain conditions of saving, while others may have particular risks associated with them.
The types of ISA available are:
There are three types of cash ISA:
This type of ISA is also known as a peer-to-peer ISA (P2P ISA), as they are provided by peer-to-peer lending firms. It allows you to earn from lending out P2P loans and pay no tax on the income generated.
P2P loans are available online via a number of providers. They enable you to lend out your money to individuals or businesses and earn interest from the repayments. As there is no ‘middleman’, these loans can offer higher interest to savers the mainstream market.
P2P lending comes with a higher risk than cash saving, so discuss it first with your financial adviser.
Exclusively for first-time buyers, a Help-to-Buy ISA is designed to help save a deposit for a first home. You can no longer open a Help-to-Buy ISA, but if you continue to pay into an existing one. You could open your ISA with an initial lump sum of up to £1,000, and can then save up to £200 per month (so in the first month you can deposit £1,200 in total). You can miss monthly deposits but you can’t roll them over, so the maximum you can pay in is always £200. You can save up to £12,000 in total (deposits plus interest) and when you complete the purchase of your first home, the government adds a bonus of 25 per cent (so a £12,000 ISA is boosted to £15,000). If you choose not to buy a home you can still take the money you saved up, but you won’t get the 25 per cent bonus.
Find out more about help to buy schemes.
A Lifetime ISA (LISA) lets you save for a deposit on your first home, for retirement, or both. You can open one between the ages of 18 and 40, paying in up to £4,000 per year, to which the government adds a 25 per cent bonus (to a maximum total bonus of £32,000 by the age of 50). Your savings-plus-bonus can be withdrawn to be used as the deposit on your first home, or from the age of 60. If you withdraw the money for any other reason, you must pay a 25 per cent penalty.
To qualify for the bonus, the home you buy must cost under £450,000.
Find out more about how to use a Lifetime ISA to save for a home.
This works the same way as other ISAs, but is specifically designed for children. You can open a junior ISA for your child at any point, putting away up to £9,000 each year. Your child can then access the ISA once they turn 18, and will no tax on the proceeds. Junior ISAs hold either cash or stocks & shares or a mixture of the two. Talk to your financial adviser about the best option for your child’s long-term investment.
Find out more about saving for children.
If your spouse has an ISA and they die, then you inherit not just the money itself but also an additional ISA allowance, equal to the total value of all ISAs they held at the time. This allows you to reinvest the money in your own ISAs in that tax year, without losing its tax-protected status.